A Gaskell Bibliography
To Sandlebridge she was brought from Knutsford each spring and summer as a young child, and to Sandlebridge she constantly returned in adult life, after marriage, and, in due course, with her own children, so deeply had she learnt to love the place. It so completely epitomized the peace of the countryside for her that whenever a scene of pastral beauty was to be evoked in her novels, it was Sandlebridge she described. (Winifred Gerin, Elizabeth Gaskell)
A Gaskell Bibliography
- Miriam Allott, Elizabeth Gaskell (Longman, 1899)
- Payne, George A., Mrs. Gaskell and Knutsford (Manchester: Clarkson & Griffiths, 1900)
- Chadwick, Ellis H, Mrs. Gaskell: Haunts, Homes, and Stories (London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1910)
- Dullemen, J. A. V., Elizabeth Gaskell: Novelist and Biographer (Amsterdam: H. J. Paris, 1924)
- Payne, G. A., Mrs. Gaskell: A Brief Biography (Manchester: Sherratt & Hughes, 1929)
- Sanders, Gerald DeWitt, Elizabeth Gaskell (New York: Russell & Russell, 1929)
- Whitfield, A. Stanton, Mrs. Gaskell: Her Life and Work (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1929)
- Haldane, Elizabeth, Mrs. Gaskell and Her Friends (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1930)
- Ffrench, Yvonne, Mrs. Caskell (London: Home & Van ThaI, 1949)
- Rubenius, Aina, The Woman Question in Mrs. Gaskell's Life and Works (Upsala: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, 1950)
- Hopkins, Annette Brown, Elizabeth Gaskell: Her Life and Work (New York: Octagon Books, 1952)
- Allott, Miriam, Elizabeth Gaskell (Burnt Mill: Longman, 1960)
- Pollard, Arthur, Mrs. Gaskell: Novelist and Biographer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965)
- Wright, Edgar, Mrs. Gaskell: The Basis for Reassessment (London: Oxford University Press, 1965)
- Pollard Arthur & Chapple, J. A. V., (eds.) The Letters of Mrs. Gaskell (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967)
- Ganz, Margaret, Elizabeth Caskell: The Artist in Conflict (New York: Twayne, 1969)
- McVeagh, John, Elizabeth Gaskell (New York: Humanities Press, 1970)
- Sharps, John Geoffrey, Mrs. Gaskell's Observation and Invention: A Study of Her Non-Biographic Works ( London: Linden Press, 1970)
- Lansbury, Coral, Elizabeth Gaskell: The Novel ofSocial Crisis (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975)
- Craik, W. A., Elizabeth Gaskell and the English Provincial Novel (London: Methuen & Co., 1975)
- Yamawaki, Yuriko, A Study of Elizabeth Gaskell (Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1776)
- Gerin, Winifred, Elizabeth Gaskell: A Biography (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1976)
- Selig, Robert L., Elizabeth Gaskell: A Reference Guide (Boston, 1977)
- Welch, Jeffrey, Elizabeth Gaskell: An Annotated Bibliography: 1929-1975 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1977)
- Shrivastava, J. G., Mrs. Gaskell as a Novelist (University of Salzburg, 1977)
- Vergmann, F., Mrs. Gaskell, Masters and Men (Odense University, 1977)
- Easson, Angus, Elizabeth Caskell (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979)
- Duthie, Enid L. (ed.), The Themes of Elizabeth Gaskell (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979)
- Davoudzadeh, M., The Novels of Elizabeth Gaskell in Perspective (Zurich: Juris, 1979)
- Brill, Barbara, At Home with Elizabeth Gaskell (1980, Nettlebed: Teamband, 2000)
- Chapple, J. A. V., Elizabeth Gaskell: A Portrait in Letters, assisted by John Geoffrey Sharps (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980)
- Fryckstedt, Monica Correa, Elizabeth Gaskell's "Mary Barton" and "Ruth": A Challenge to Christian England (Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1982)
- Scott-Kilvert, Ian, ed., Elizabeth Gaskell to Francis Thompson (Scribner, 1982) -- edited under the auspices of the British Council.
- Brill, Barbara, William Gaskell 1805-84: A Portrait (Manchester: Manchester Lit. & Phil., 1984)
- Lansbury, Coral, Elizabeth Gaskell (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984)
- Angus Easson, Elizabeth Gaskell and the Novel of Local Pride (Manchester: John Rylands Univ. Lib. of Manchester, 1985)
- Brodetsky, Tessa, Elizabeth Gaskell (Leamington Spa, 1986)
- Stoneman, Patsy, Elizabeth Gaskell (Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press, 1987)
- Elizabeth Gaskell and Nineteenth Century Literature (Research Pubns, 1989)
- Mary Quinn, (ed.), Elizabeth Gaskell and Nineteenth Century Literature: Manuscripts from the John Rylands University Library (Research Pubns, 1989)
- Spencer, Jane, Elizabeth Gaskell (London: Macmillan, 1991)
- Nakamura, Shoko, The Novels of E. Gaskell (Tokyo: Sanyusya, 1991)
- Easson, Angus, (ed.) Elizabeth Gaskell: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge, 1991)
- Schor, Hilary M., Scheherezade in the Marketplace: Elizabeth Gaskell and the Victorian Novel (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)
- Bonaparte, Felicia, The Gypsy-Bachelor of Manchester: The Life of Mrs. Gaskell's Demon (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992)
- Uglow, Jenny, Elizabeth Gaskell: A Habit of Stories (London: Faber and Faber, 1993)
- Weyant, Nancy S., Elizabeth Gaskell: An Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Sources 1976-1991 (London: Metuchen, 1994)
- Wright, Terence, Elizabeth Gaskell: 'We are Not Angels': Realism, Gender, Values (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995)
- Colby, Robin B., "Some Appointed Work to Do": Women and Vocation in the Fiction of Elizabeth Gaskell (Greenwood Press, 1995)
- Pike, E. Holly, Family and Society in the Works of Elizabeth Gaskell, American University Studies: Ser. 4, English Language and Literature, Vol. 174 (New York: Peter Lang, 1995)
- Flint, Kate, Elizabeth Gaskell (London: Northcote House, 1995)
- Wilson, Anita C. & Chapple, John, (eds.) Private Voices: The Diaries of Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell and Sophia Isaac Holland (Keele University Press, 1996)
- Unsworth, Anna, Elizabeth Gaskell: An Independent Woman (Minerva Press, 1996)
- Chapple, J. A. V. & Arthur Pollard, The Letters of Mrs Gaskell (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997)
- Chapple, John, Elizabeth Gaskell: The Early Years (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997)
- d'Albertis, Deirdre, Dissembling Fictions: Elizabeth Gaskell and the Victorian Social Text (London: Macmillan, 1997)
- Smith, Walter E., Elizabeth C. Gaskell: A Bibliographical Catalogue of First and Early Editions 1848-1866 (Los Angelees: Heritage Book Shop, 1998)
- Hughes, Linda K. & Michael Lund, Victorian Publishing and Mrs. Gaskell's Work (Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1999)
- Marroni, Francesco and Alan Shelston, Elizabeth Gaskell: Text and Context (Pescara: Tracce, 1999)
- Chapple, John and Alan Shelston, Further Letters of Mrs Gaskell (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2001)
- Adachi, Masuko. Elizabeth Gaskell: Her Life and Works. Tokyo: Otowa-Tsurumi, 2001.
- Matsuoka, Mitsuharu, ed. The Literature of Gaskell: Viewing Victorian Society from Various Angles. Tokyo: Eihosha, 2001.
- Yamawaki, Yuriko, ed. Aspects of Love in Gaskell. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 2002.
- Asahi, Chiseki, ed. The Journey of Gaskell. Tokyo: Ohtori Shobo, 2002.
- Foster, Shirley. Elizabeth Gaskell: A Literary Life. Basingstoke, Hamp.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
- Weyant, Nancy S. Elizabeth Gaskell: An Annotated Guide to English Language Sources. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2004.
- Handley, Graham. An Elizabeth Gaskell Chronology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
- Nash, Julie. Servants and Paternalism in the Works of Maria Edgeworth and Elizabeth Gaskell. Oxon: Ashgate, 2007.
- Stoneman, Patsy. Elizabeth Gaskell: Second Edition. Manchester UP, 2007
- Colon, Susan E. The Professional Ideal in the Victorian Novel: The Works of Disraeli, Trollope, Gaskell, and Eliot. Palgrave Macmillan, 2007
- Matus, Jill L. The Cambridge Companion to Elizabeth Gaskell. Cambridge UP, 2007
- Cazamian, Louis, The Social Novel in England, 1830-50: Dickens, Disraeli, Mrs. Gaskell, Kingsley, trans. Martin Fido (London: Routledge& Kegan Paul, 1903)
- Peacock, W., English Prose: Gaskell to James (London: Milford, 1926)
- Cecil, David, Victorian Novelists: Essays in Revaluation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935)
- Baker, Ernest A. B, From the Brontes to Meredith: Romanticism in the English Novel (London: H. F. & G. Witherby, 1937)
- Woolf, Virginia, "Professions for Women" in The Death of the Moth and Other Essays (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1942)
- Wagenknecht, Edward, Cavalcade of the English Novel: From Elizabeth to George VI (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1943)
- Stebbins, Lucy, "Elizabeth Gaskell," in A Victorian Album: Some Lady Novelists of the Period (New York: Columbia University Press, 1946)
- Lane, Margaret, The Bronte Story: A Reconsideration of Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlott (New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1953)
- Tillotson, Kathlee, Novels of the Eighteen-Forties (London: Oxford University Press, 1954)
- Allen, Walter, The English Novel: A Short Critical History (New York: E. P. Dutton &Co., 1958)
- Kettle, Arnold, "The Early Victorian Social-Problem Novel" in From Dickens to Hardy (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1958)
- Lionel Stevenson, (ed.), Victorian Fiction: A Guide to Research (Cambridge, Mass., 1966)
- Stebbins, Lucy Poate, A Victorian Album: Some Lady Novelists of the Period (AMS Press, 1966)
- Middendorp, Gerarda Maria Kooiman-Van, The Hero in the Feminine Novel (New York: Haskell House, 1966)
- Martin, Hazel, Petticoat Rebels: Study of Novels of Protest by George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell and Charlotte Bronte (New York: 1968)
- Cazamian, Louis, The Social Novel in England 1830-1850: Dickens, Disraeli, Mrs. Gaskell, Kingsley, trans. Martin Fido (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973)
- Basch, Francoise,
- Relative Creatures: Victorian Women in Society and the Novel, trans. Anthony Rudolf (New York: Schoeken Books, 1974)
- Beer, Patricia, Reader, I Married Him: A Study of the Women Characters of Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot (London: Macmillan, 1974)
- Calder, Jenni, Women and Marriage in Victorian Fiction (London: Thomas & Hudson, 1976)
- Moers, Elle, Literary Women: The Great Writers (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1977)
- Showalter, Elaine, A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977)
- Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Women: An Idea In Fiction (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978)
- Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979)
- Beer, Patricia, Reader, I Married Him: A Study of the Women Characters of Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot (London: Macmillan, 1980)
- David, Deirdre, Fictions of Resolution in Three Victorian Novels: North and South, Our Mutual Friend, Daniel Deronda (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981)
- Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Womwn: The Life of a Victorian Myth (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982)
- Nadel, Ira Bruce, Biography: Fiction, Fact, and Form (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984)
- Gallagher, Catherine, The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction: 1832-1867 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985)
- Nestor, Pauline, Female Friendships and Communities: Charlotte Bronte; George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985)
- Nestor, Pauline, Female Friendships and Communities: Charlotte Bronte, George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell (Clarendon Press, 1986)
- Dorothy and Alan Shelston, The Industrial City 1820-1870 (London: Macmillan, 1990)
- Retan, Katherine Allison, Opening the Floodgates: the Construction and Transgression of Gender and Class Boundaries in the Novels of Charlotte Bronte, Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Gaskell (University Microfilms International, 1991) -- Ph.D. Thesis.
- Barker, Juliet, The Brontes and Mrs Gaskell (Weidenfield & nicholson, 1994)
- Harsh, Constance D., Subsersive Heroines: Feminist Resolutions of Social Crisis in the Condition of England Novel
- Selleck, Richard J. W., James Kay-Shuttleworth: Journey of an Outsider (Ilford: The Woburn Press, 1994)
- Jenkins, Ruth Y., Reclaiming Myths of Power: Women Writers and the Victorian Spiritual Crisis (London: Associated University Press, 1995)
- Childers, Joseph W., Novel Possibilities, Fiction and the Formation of Early Victorian Culture (Univ. of Pennsylvia Press)
- Ingha, Patricia, The Language of Gender and Class: Transformation in the Victorian Novel (Routledge)
- Nord, Deborah E., Walking the Victorian Streets, Women, Representation and the City (Cornell University Press)
- Langland, Elizabeth, Nobody's Angels: Middle-Class Women and Domestic Ideology in Victorian Culture (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995)
- Elizabeth Gaskell's Angels with a Twist
- The Sufficient Ladies of Cranford
- Wives and Daughters in Social Circulation
Coral Lansbury's commentary on Secondary Sources
- Allot, Miriam.
London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1960.
A superficial and outdated study of the major novels.
- Auerbach, Nina. Communities of Women.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Auerbach discusses the radical nature of Cranford
as a "holy community" settled and ordered by women.
- Bald, Marjory A.
Women-Writers of the Nineteenth Century.
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1923.
A somewhat old-fashioned
study, this work nonetheless contains an interesting interpretation of
- Barry, James D.
"Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell." In Victorian Fiction.
York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1974.
Quite the best critical and bibliographical study of Gaskell. Essential for every study.
- Basch, Francoise.
Relative Creatures: Victorian Women in Society and the Novel.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
Contains some original
insights into the now-familiar topic of the Victorian "double standard."
- Beer, Patricia.
Reader, I Married Him., A Study of the Women Characters of
Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot.
Beer was one of the first feminist critics to draw attention to Gaskell's insistence that women have sexual needs that may
be as strong as, or stronger than, those of men.
- Briggs, Asa.
London: Macmillan, 1959.
Contains a useful
discussion of the social background to Mary Barton and North and
- Calder, Jenni.
Women and Marriage in Victorian Fiction.
London: Thames &
A finely detailed study of the radical nature of Gaskell's
heroines in a paternalistic and authoritarian society.
- Cazamian, Louis.
Le Roman Social en Angleterre (1830-1850).
nouvelle de librarie et d'édition, 1904.
This is a major work that indicates the measure of importance accorded to Gaskell by French critics. At a time when English critics were praising Cranford, the French
were emphasizing Mary Barton and North and South .
- Cecil, David.
Early Victorian Novelists.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,
Cecil provides the traditional view of Gaskell as gentle, self-effacing, and feminine. Unlike Cazamian he finds the locus of her work
in Cranford .
- Cockshut, A. 0. J.
"The Realists: Mrs. Gaskell." In his Man and Woman:
A Study of Love and the Novel.
New York: Oxford University Press,
Cockshut draws a number of comparisons between Gaskell and
Austen, not all of which are convincing.
- Coustillas, Pierre.
"Mrs. Gaskell." In Le Roman Anglais au XIX Siecle.
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1978.
Coustillas follows Cazamian in regarding North and South as the writer's best work and one of
the finest of the century.
- Craik, W. A.
Elizabeth Gaskell and the English Provincial Novel.
Craik places Gaskell in the context of the English regional novel, a perspective that tends to distort rather than illuminate
- Cross, Wilbur L.
The Development of the English Novel.
New York: Macmillan, 1911.
An old work that the student should not disregard since it
offers some interesting insights into Ruth and suggests George Eliot's
reliance on this work.
- Easson, Angus.
London: Routledge, 1980.
Finely detailed historical background. If there is ever to be a definitive edition
of Gaskell's works it is to be hoped that Easson is made editor. Easson
gives a full account of the parlous condition of Gaskell texts now in
print and lists a number of corrections and emendations. This work is
indispensable for the textual scholar.
- Ffrench, Yvonne.
London: Home & Van Thal, 1949.
lively, pleasant work that falls into the category of popular biography.
- Ganz, Margaret.
Elizabeth Gaskell: The Artist in Conflict.
Twayne Publishers, 1969.
Because of a disregard for the significance of
Unitarianism in Gaskell's work, the title and, to a certain degree, this
study are misleading.
- Gérin, Winifred.
Oxford, Clarendon, 1976.
written from a Brontean perspective that distorts rather more than it
illuminates Gaskell's work. An omnium gatherum of facts about Gaskell (inaccuracies have been noted by J. G. Sharps among others), it
offers little for the serious student.
- Hopkins, A. B.
Elizabeth Gaskell. Her Life and Work.
London: John Lehmann, 1952.
This is a fine work that can still stand as one of the major
critical and biographical studies of Gaskell. Too often an important
work has been allowed to slip out of sight and this is the case with
Hopkins's study. Her pioneering work on the relationship of Gaskell's
narrative forms with those of the French novel of the period has still
not been fully developed.
"Mrs. Gaskell in France 1849-1890." PMLA 53 (June 1938).
Those who question Gaskell's popularity in France and her affinities
with the French novel would be well advised to read this discerning
and informed article.
- James, W. L. G.
"The Portrayal of Death and 'Substance of Life': Aspects
of the Modern Reader's Response to 'Victorianism.'" In Reading the
Victorian Novel: Detail into Form, edited by I. Gregor.
Barnes & Noble, 1980.
James discusses Dickens's use of the death scene and draws some comparisons with the theme of death in Mary
Barren. An important essay in that it emphasizes the significance of the
death scene as a trope in the Victorian novel.
- Kettle, Arnold.
"The Early Victorian Social-Problem Novel." In From
Dickens to Hardy, edited by Boris Ford.
Writing from a Marxist viewpoint Kettle gives a
thoughtful and well-reasoned account of Mary Barton and North and
South. Kettle is not a Kathleen Tillotson but he does offer some important insights into the nature of the industrial novel.
- Lane, Margaret.
The Bronte Story: A Reconsideration of Mrs. Gaskell's Life of
London: Macmillan, 1953.
This is a reworking of Gaskell's biography.
- Lansbury, Coral.
Elizabeth Gaskell. The Novel of Social Crisis.
Barnes & Noble, 1975.
Lansbury was the first to emphasize the importance of Unitarianism in Gaskell's life and work. A major concern in
this work is a study of the conflicting roles of the narrator to accommodate a middle-class reader.
- Lerner, Laurence.
Love and Marriage: Literature in Its Social Context.
York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.
Lerner draws attention to the influence
of Wordsworth on Gaskell's style and the ways by which she uses the
conventions of love to reveal new psychological truths.
- Lucas, W. J.
"Engels, Mrs. Gaskell and Manchester." In his The Literature
of Change: Studies in the Nineteenth Century Provincial Novel.
Harper & Row, 1977.
Lucas provides an excellent critical study of
Phillis and pays tribute to Gaskell as a more accurate social historian
- McVeagh, John.
London: Routledge, 1970.
This is a
useful introduction to the novels of Gaskell by means of long extracts
and brief critical commentary. For the student who requires a quick
overview of the novels this could be helpful.
- Musselwhite, David.
"The Novel as Narcotic." In 1848: The Sociology of
Literature, edited by Francis Barker, John Coombs, Peter Hulme, Colin
Mercer, and David Musselwhite. Proceedings of the Essex Conference
on the Sociology of Literature, July 1977.
Colchester, England: University of Essex.
Some interesting perceptions into the radical nature of
Gaskell's industrial novels.
- Pollard, Arthur.
Mrs. Gaskell: Novelist and Biographer.
University Press, 1965.
Accurate, detailed, and unexciting. Useful as
a reference guide.
- Rance, N.
"Elizabeth Gaskell: Sylvia's Lovers." In The Historical Novel and
Popular Politics in Nineteenth Century England.
London: Vision Press,
An interesting comparison drawn between Paine's concern with
the issue of the individual in society and the social conflicts in Sylvia's
- Sanders, A.
"Suffering a Sea-Change: Mrs. Gaskell's Sylvia's Lovers." In
The Victorian Historical Novel, 1840-1880.
London and Basingstoke:
The article contrasts Gaskell's historical approach
with that of Flaubert and Eliot. Sanders emphasizes the power of human passion to change events in Gaskell's novels, particularly Sylvia's
- Shelston, A. J.
Ruth: Mrs. Gaskell's Neglected Novel.
The John Rylands
University Library of Manchester. Vol. 58. No. 1, 1975.
A fine reappraisal of this novel.
- Showalter, Elaine.
A Literature of Their Own.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
A major work of feminist criticism with some illuminating comments on Gaskell.
- Stone, D. D.
"Elizabeth Gaskell, Wordsworth and the Burden of Reality."
In The Romantic Impulse in Victorian Fiction.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1980.
Stone sees Wives and Daughters as the most
Wordsworthian of all Gaskell's novels, but then tends to grade the
other works by their conformity to a Wordsworthian canon.
- Tillotson, Geoffrey.
"Mrs. Gaskell." In A View of Victorian Literature.
Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.
A brief but lucid appreciation of Gaskell's style
- Tillotson, Kathleen.
Novels of the Eighteen-Forties.
London: Oxford University Press, 1961. One of the finest studies of Gaskell, and particularly
of Mary Barton, in the critical canon.
This still remains an indispensable work for the student.
- Wright, Edgar.
Mrs. Gaskell: The Basis for Reassessment.
University Press, 1965.
This is one of the pioneering studies that
sought to establish Gaskell among the major novelists of the period.
Thorough, dependable, and useful for the student who requires an introduction to the novels.
Book Search and Order
Avonbank, the Byerleys' school, Stratford-upon-Avon
Top of Page
Mitsuharu Matsuoka's Home Page